A.J. MUSTE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
Supporting Nonviolence and Social Justice Since 1974.
339 Lafayette Street, New York, New York 10012 (212) 533-4335 Fax: (212) 228-6193 info@ajmuste.org

International Nonviolence Training Fund
Roster of Grants from founding in 1994
through December 31, 2015

Total INTF Grants (73): $191,922

2015 (2 grants: $8,000)

Africa Awake NPC, South Africa: $4,000 in April 2015 for a training workshop in collaboration with the Africa Solidarity Network, helping diaspora activist leaders from Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda living in Durban, South Africa guide their communities to apply nonviolent means in seeking democratic change.

Arbi Harnet (Freedom Friday), Oakland, CA: $4,000 in April 2015 (disbursed March 2016 via War Resisters' International) for a nonviolence training with Eritrean diaspora activists on campaign building, cohesion and training of trainers. http://www.everydayrebellion.net/tag/arbi-harnet/

2014 (7 grants: $25,800)

Amani Peoples Theatre, Nairobi, Kenya: $4,000 in April 2014 for a Nonviolence Training for Women and Youth in East Pokot, Kenya, using participatory theater and forum theater to equip participants with nonviolent action skills and knowledge that they will use to mobilize their communities in nonviolent action and crisis intervention.

Chemchemi Ya Ukweli, Nairobi, Kenya: $4,000 in December 2014 to expand the Active Nonviolence Program through a “Train the Trainers” Training, preparing 20 new trainers from 17 different communities in Nairobi County to lead nonviolence trainings and to play a leadership role in addressing community conflicts. chemichemi.org

Combatants for Peace, Ramat Gan, Israel: $4,000 in December 2014 for “A Non-violent Struggle to End the Occupation,” scheduled to take place in Tul Karem, Palestine, Tel Aviv Israel, and Beit Jalla, Palestine in early 2015, with the goal of training Israeli and Palestinian members in the principles of nonviolence and to become leaders in a Theater of the Oppressed action program. cfpeace.org

Eritrean Antimilitarist Initiative, Frankfurt Am Main, Germany: $4,000 in April 2014 for a training for trainers with Eritrean exile activists, focusing on the concept, strategies and actions of nonviolent campaigns and learning from the experiences of other countries. eritreanantimilitarisminitiave.blogspot.com

Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, Port Harcourt, Nigeria: $4,000 in April 2014 for the Ogoni Smallholder Farmers Leadership Training on Nonviolent Struggles, building the capacity of local female farmers to carry out effective nonviolent resistance to government land grabbing policies.

Sahrawi Center for Media and Communication, Laayoune, Western Sahara: $2,800 in June 2014 (via Nonviolence International) for a four-day training in Sahrawi territory on “Resisting Occupation, Learning from the Palestinian Experience, Nonviolence Strategies.”

Swadhina, Kolkata, India: $3,000 in December 2014 for a “Marginalized Grassroot Leaders’ Training on Nonviolence and Social Empowerment” with members of Panchayats (local self-government bodies) and local community leaders in Jharkhand state, with the goal of developing their capacity to implement nonviolent action for good governance and social justice. swadhina.org.in

2013 (3 grants: $11,279)

Tibet Action Institute, New York, NY: $4,000 in April for Lhakar Academy - Tibetan School of Leadership and Change, a three-week training program in nonviolent campaigns, strategies, leadership and skills in Dharamsala, India with 10 young Tibetan leaders. tibetaction.net

Solidarity Uganda, Hanover, PA: $3,279 in June/September for trainings in Amuru District, Uganda, to equip residents with knowledge of nonviolence theories and the ability to utilize nonviolent tactics to protect land rights. solidarityuganda.com

War Resisters' International, London, UK: $4,000 in December for a Latin American Nonviolence Training for Trainers in Quito, Ecuador, bringing together 30 nonviolence trainers from around the continent to strengthen skills in leading trainings for nonviolent action, and to build the base for a Latin American Nonviolence Trainers Network. wri-irg.org

2012 (3 grants: $9,875)

Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection (KSCO), Seoul, South Korea: $4,000 in June 2012 for a Training for Trainers to build a local network of nonviolence trainers and increase popular awareness of nonviolent activism in Korea.

Refugees United for Peaceful Solutions (RUPS), Cairo, Egypt: $3,000 in April 2012 for "The Practice of Active Nonviolence: Training for Trainers," a 10-week program in Cairo empowering 12 trainers with practical organizing skills to help their communities engage in nonviolent campaigns. The participants are refugees from Sudan, Eritrea, and Somalia. refugees4peace.org

Re.Generation Association, Bucharest, Romania: $2,875 in September 2012 for a nonviolent direct action (NVDA) training with the aim of improving the abilities and skills of 20 Re.Generation activists from Bucharest and Cluj Napoca to carry out nonviolent campaign actions for social justice and a safe environment.

2011 (7 grants: $16,061)

Amani Communities Africa, Nairobi, Kenya: $2,000 in April 2011 for a training with 20 youth performing artists from the Kibera, Mukuru and Mathare informal settlements in Nairobi County, equipping them with knowledge about and skills in nonviolence and gender issues for the purpose of replicating the training throughout their communities using art as a medium. www.acafrica.org

Arab Educational Institute (AEIOpen Windows), Bethlehem, Palestine: $2,900 in June 2011 for a training with women at the Sumud Story House to help them prepare for an open air art installation (Wall Museum) challenging the Israeli Wall around Rachel’s Tomb in the north of Bethlehem. Sumud means resilience in Arabic. www.aeicenter.org

Center for Conflict Resolution (CECORE), Kampala, Uganda: $2,000 in December 2011 for a nonviolence skills training with active members and leaders of political parties and other stakeholders in Uganda’s political process. cecore.or.ug

Frontier Indigenous Network, Wajir, Kenya: $2,500 in April 2011 for an Indigenous/Pastoralist Communities Training, building capacities and skills among women and youth peacebuilders from warring communities to nonviolently engage their communities in resolving resource conflicts. indigenousnetwork.blogspot.com

Minyiri Development Group, Kisumu, Kenya: 2,000 in April 2011 (via sponsor Chemchemi Ya Ukweli) for a four-day training in Basic Active Nonviolence in May 2011 with 30 local community leaders, with the goal of increasing their understanding of the value and effectiveness of nonviolence and encouraging them to initiate alternative dispute methods.

Mladinski Inicijativi (Youth Initiatives), Skopje, Macedonia: $2,000 in April 2011 for “Balkan Youth Peace Actions”, a five-day nonviolence training bringing together young activists from the region and giving them an opportunity to explore the ways and means of mutual regional peace activism.

Mouvement International pour la Réconciliation à Madagascar (FIEFA / MIR-MAD), Toamasina, Madagascar: $2,661 in April 2011 for the “Promotion of youth of peace into the Atsinanana Region of Madagascar” training project, strengthening the capacity of young leaders and peace promoters of Toamasina, Brickville and East Fenerive in peacekeeping and conflict prevention. www.ifor.org/Madagascar.html

2010 (6 grants: $17,088)

Active Nonviolence Education Center, Dharamsala, India: $2,888 in June 2010 (via Tibetan Children’s Villages) for a Training/ Workshop/ Open Forum Discussion on Active Nonviolence Strategies with Tibetan refugees. www.anec.org.in

Combatants for Peace, East Jerusalem, Israel: $3,000 in June 2010 for a Training in Non-Violent Action – Learning the Comprehensive Meaning of Effective Non-violent Resistance, an educational and participatory workship with Combatants for Peace members in Beit Jalla, East Jerusalem. www.cfpeace.org

Kwale Interfaith Youth Association, Mombasa, Kenya: $3,000 in April 2010 for a three-day active nonviolence training with 25 leaders from this youth association.

Miramida Centar – Regional Peacebuilding Exchange, Groznjan - Grisignana, Croatia: $3,000 in December 2010 for “Miramida Basic 31-Strengthening engagement of Croatian war veterans in peacebuilding and reconciliation processes,” a nonviolence training involving war veterans in a campaign to create a non-governmental voice in a truth and reconciliation process to help document and investigate war crimes. miramida.org

Palestine Solidarity Project, Palestine: $2,800 in January 2010 for the Center for Strategic Alternatives Political Action Training, helping Palestinian community members to develop autonomous strategies of nonviolent resistance to displacement and violence. palestinesolidarityproject.org

Whatcom Peace & Justice Center, Bellingham, WA: $2,400 in April 2010 for a “Community Honor and Resistance Nonviolence Training” on the Lummi Nation Indian Reservation, as part of efforts to create an active, inclusive, community voice for peace and social justice in Whatcom County. www.whatcompjc.org

2009 (9 grants: $24,979)

Community Initiative for Change (CIC) Trust, Nairobi, Kenya: $3,000 in December 2009 for a gender and nonviolence training for community leaders within informal settlements in Nairobi for sustainable post-conflict peace building.

Forthspring Inter Community Group, Belfast, Northern Ireland: $3,000 in June 2009 for a nonviolence training with Forthspring staff and community activists, designed to develop skills within the group and local community to address the legacy of conflict.

Grupo de Reflexión, Oaxaca, Mexico: $3,000 in December 2009 (via Educa Oaxaca, Servicios para una Educación Alternativa A.C.) for a training to increase capacity in nonviolence for the social movement in Oaxaca.

Kenya Pastoralist Journalist Network, Garissa, Kenya: $2,500 in June 2009 for a training to build the capacity of pastoralist communities to use nonviolent strategies to confront and prevent violence and armed conflict in their areas.

Korea Solidarity for Conscientious Objection (KSCO), Seoul, South Korea: $3,000 in April 2009 for a training on nonviolence and conscientious objection.

Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow - New Discourse, Tel Aviv, Israel: $2,500 in December 2009 for a training on Community Education and Consciousness-Raising as Nonviolent Resistance, helping community members develop their skills in active nonviolence toward carrying out a campaign to demand academic opportunities.

Peace Makers Society Cameroon, Nkwen Bamenda, North West Region, Cameroon: $1,979 in June 2009 for a participatory grassroots nonviolence training for women group leaders of villages involved in inter-tribal conflicts.

RAND – Regionalna Adresa za Nenasilno Djelovanje (Regional Address for Nonviolent Action), Sesvete, Croatia: $3,000 in January 2009 for a training for activists and community workers from Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro, to provide them with tools to strengthen nonviolent action and group conflict transformation throughout their communities and the region.

Swadhina, Kolkata, India: $3,000 in June 2009 for a training promoting awareness about nonviolent action and encouraging leadership development among women to help them organize nonviolently for justice.

2008 (5 grants: $15,495)

Association of Human Rights and Torture Defenders (AHURTOD), Buea, Cameroon: $3,500 in April 2008 for a “training for trainers” workshop for 30 University of Buea student leaders.

Family Mediation and Conciliation-FAMEC, Nairobi, Kenya: $2,995 in April 2008 for a nonviolence training for university student leaders in Nairobi.

House for Peace and Nonviolence (St. Petersburg, Russia): $3,000 in December 2008 for the "Initiative for Nonviolence in Russia (including Chechnya)," a nonviolence training for young activists.

Love Thy Neighbor, Bethesda, Maryland (USA): $3,000 in June 2008 for the Living Nonviolence Training and Summer Camp in Ramallah,West Bank, Palestine, teaching Palestinian children and teenagers the skills and principles of nonviolence, and training Palestinian young adults as nonviolence trainers.

Palestinian Centre for Rapprochement Between People, Beit Sahour, Palestine: $3,000 in June 2008 for the Young Advocates Program, training young Palestinians in nonviolence, conflict resolution, advocacy, human rights, communication and other skills, in order to help them lead a successful nonviolent movement to end the Occupation.

2007 (4 grants: $6,000)

Centre for Renewal (Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria): $1,000 in February 2007 for a training workshop for facilitators using Pace e Bene’s “From Violence to Wholeness” curriculum to empower communities in Nigeria's Plateau state to settle religious, economic and political conflicts nonviolently and work toward sustained nonviolent action. Participants are recruited from among those who have already taken part in a “From Violence to Wholeness” workshop, and those already involved in peace-building initiatives who want to run nonviolence workshops. The Centre for Renewal was established in 1980 for the holistic development of the people of Plateau State, a multiethnic and multireligious territory that has experienced devastating civil, economic and religious unrest in recent years.

Palestine Solidarity Project (New York/Palestine): $3,000 in June 2007 for nonviolence trainings and meetings in the South Hebron hills to help local residents develop effective strategies of nonviolent resistance. PSP is a Palestinian organization with international volunteers committed to confronting the Israeli occupation with nonviolent tactics. The people of the South Hebron hills are cut off by settlements from the city of Hebron and isolated from all other areas of Palestine. These trainings seek to bring together residents from five local communities—especially the women and older men who have been the most active in these efforts—to help them build their own networks and skills to nonviolently resist ongoing attempts by the Israeli military and settlers to drive them from their homes. http://palestinesolidarityproject.org/

Shri Gandhi Seva Ashram Sarguja (Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh, India): $1,000 in February 2007 for a project in collaboration with Grassroots India Trust, training leaders of “Villagers Empowerment Forums” in leadership, legal literacy and campaigning skills so they can carry out the nonviolent Food and Democracy Campaign.

Sudanese Organization for Nonviolence and Development, SONAD (Khartoum, Sudan): $1,000 in February 2007 for an intensive training to strengthen the skills of local Sudanese nonviolence trainers to handle difficult group situations in various kinds of civil conflict transformation efforts. SONAD was started in 1994 by internally displaced people from southern Sudan, mostly youth and students, who took nonviolent action to resist the Sudanese government's demolitions of homes in the refugee camps. The organization's aim is to support the development of a just, democratic and peaceful Sudan

2006 (4 grants: $9,500)

Center for Environment, Human Rights and Development, CEHRD (Rivers State, Nigeria): $3,000 in June 2006 for a training to help women in the Otuasega community of Nigeria’s Bayelsa State develop successful strategies in their struggle against Shell oil company. This group, formerly called the Niger Delta Project for Environment, Human Rights and Development, has been working since August 1999 to nonviolently confront multinational oil companies and the Nigerian government over the harmful effects of oil drilling in the Niger River delta. The Otuasega women sought CEHRD’s help after being beaten back by the military during a nonviolent protest occupation of Shell facilities last January. http://www.cehrd.org/

Pace E Bene (Oakland, CA/Argentina): $1,500 in June 2006 grant for a nonviolence training at the Complejo Educativo de Alberdi, an alternative school in the Alberdi neighborhood in Rosario, in Argentina’s Santa Fe province. The training seeks to equip participants with people-power strategies and tools to challenge and transform chronic patterns of local police harassment; and train teachers, parents, and community members to develop and integrate a comprehensive nonviolence training program for students at every level in the school. http://paceebene.org/

Palestinian Centre for Rapprochement Between People (Beit Sahour, Palestine): $3,000 in December 2006 for the Young Advocates Program, training young Palestinians in advocacy, human rights, communication, language, media, advocacy, computer and web design, among other skills, in order to help them lead a successful nonviolent resistance movement capable of ending Israel’s occupation of Palestinian land. The Palestinian Centre for Rapprochement is a community service and advocacy center founded in 2005 to work within the local Palestinian community for peace, justice and reconciliation. http://www.pcr.ps/

PINE TREE (La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines): $2,000 in December 2006 for a training of tribal leaders to help the Igorot peoples nonviolently defend their rights to land and to sustainable, community-controlled development. PINE TREE (Peace Initiation and Enhancement through Transformation Enlightening Education) was founded in 2001 by Dr. Michael A. Bengwayan while he was an international fellow on social change at the Echoing Green Foundation in New York. Bengwayan is a member of the Igorot tribe from Baguio City (Philippines) who has worked extensively with refugees and indigenous peoples in the Philippines, Nepal, India, Tanzania, Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand.

2005 (2 grants: $5,500)

International Women’s Partnership for Peace and Justice (Chiang Mai, Thailand): $2,500 in March 2005 for a  a “training of trainers” with representatives of women’s groups in exile from Burma in northeastern India. International Women’s Partnership is a feminist nonviolence organization working to support grassroots women’s groups in South and Southeast Asia.

Nonviolence Trainers Initiative–Izmir (Izmir, Turkey): $3,000 in September 2005 for a one-week intensive “training for trainers,” helping Turkish activists who have already had nonviolence training sessions to become trainers themselves. Working under the name Izmir War Resisters Association until December 2001, this group focuses on spreading nonviolence training throughout Turkey.

2004 (1 grant: $2,000)

Youth Intervention for Peace Project (Bujumbura, Burundi): $2,000 in April 2004 for a nonviolence training program for youth in Bujumbura from June through September 2004. Youth Intervention for Peace Project seeks to confront the negative forces which lead young people in Burundi to participate in inter-ethnic violence for political ends, and to introduce them to nonviolent methods of action as a viable and constructive alternative.

2003 (2 grants: $6,000)

International Women’s Partnership for Peace and Justice (Chiang Mai, Thailand): $3,000 in October 2003 for the Southeast Asia Regional Women’s Active Nonviolence Social Action Training, with 20 participants from Thailand, Burma in exile, Tibet in exile, Cambodia, Indonesia and East Timor.

Holy Land Trust (Bethlehem, Palestine):  $3,000 in April 2003 for the Nonviolence Core Group Training Program, developing a core group of trained Palestinian community leaders committed to initiating, organizing and participating in nonviolent activities. http://www.holylandtrust.org/ 

2002 (1 grant: $2,000)

Fundación Paz, Ecología y Arte (Buenos Aires, Argentina): $2,000 in September 2002 for a two-day nonviolence training for 320 youth leaders from across Argentina at the Third International “One Thousand Years of Peace” Congress in Buenos Aires.

2001 (1 grant: $3,000)

Izmir War Resisters Association (Izmir, Turkey): $3,000 in September 2001 for a conference in late September 2001 on "Peace and Women's Movement in Turkey: Practice and Ideology," to discuss nonviolent strategies for confronting militarism and sexism. The Izmir War Resisters Association carries out trainings and educational work with political activists in Turkey, promoting the use of nonviolent action for social change. Despite the events of Sept. 11—or perhaps because of them—even more people attended the conference than were initially expected. Participants came from as far away as Korea, Colombia and Chile.

2000 (2 grants: $4,500)

Kurve Wustrow (Wustrow, Germany): $2,500 in August 2000  for travel from Nepal and other expenses of one of the trainers at the “International Training for Nonviolence in the Context of War or Armed Conflict,” a two-week program held each summer in Wustrow, Germany.

Karuna Center/Projekt Dijakom (Leverett, MA/Bosnia): $2,000 in May 2000 for Projekt Dijakom in Bosnia, a dialogue program for educators from the Sanski Most and Prijedor communities to promote inter-ethnic tolerance and understanding, conflict transformation and peacebuilding. The Karuna Center for Peacebuilding is a US-based nonprofit organization that offers international training programs in conflict transformation, intercommunal dialogue, and reconciliation.

1999 (2 grants: $2,000)

EarthRights International (Seattle, WA): $1,000 in July 1999 for the Women's Rights Project, specifically for trainings to inform Burmese refugee women about their basic human rights — including the right to live free from gender-based violence and abuse — and help them develop strategies and skills to defend those rights. The trainings, generally held in refugee camps in Thailand, cover basic principles of human rights, nonviolence, women's rights, international law and institutions, and advocacy techniques, and conclude with participants developing a plan for continued local action.

Gurukul Ecumenical Institute and Peace Centre (Kerala, India): $1,000 in February 1999 for training camps and courses helping young people to build skills for nonviolent action toward social justice and to develop a network of peace education trainers. The Gurukul Centre is an affiliate of the International Fellowship of Reconciliation.

1998 (2 grants: $2,500)

Pan-African Reconciliation Council (Lagos, Nigeria): $1,000 in April 1998 for  "Coping with Xenophobia," a training workshop introducing a group of Rwandan and Zairean citizens resident in Nigeria to the philsophy of nonviolence and peacemaking as a means of social and political change. Pan-African Reconciliation Council (PARC) is a grassroots community of people working to promote peace, social justice and mutual understanding.

Peace Brigades International (Berkeley, CA/Haiti): $1,500 in April 1998 for the Haitian Nonviolence Training program, working with community activists in Haiti to build concrete skills for resolving conflicts and working nonviolently for social and economic justice. PBI works to develop practical techniques, based on the principles of nonviolence, for the protection of human rights in situations of conflict. http://www.peacebrigades.org/

1997 (2 grants: $5,000)

Karuna Center/Women of Bosnia (Leverett, MA/Bosnia): $2,000 in May 1997 for a "Dialogue for Healing" training project with women in the Sanski Most region of Bosnia who have survived the multiple traumas of war, sexual abuse, incarceration and loss of family, home and community. The project was organized in collaboration with the Women's Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a nonprofit organization offering humanitarian services to more than 75,000 women.

Religion and Diversity Project (Montreat, NC/Osijek, Croatia): $3,000 in February 1997 for Listening Project training to civilian peace teams working for reconciliation in the East Slavonia region of Croatia. The Religion and Diversity Project was invited by the Center for Peace, Nonviolence and Human Rights (CPNH) in Osijek, Croatia, to conduct the training, which involves conducting community surveys and working to help establish nonviolent communication among Croats, Serbs and Muslims within the resettlement process.

1996 (5 grants: $9,000)

Peace Brigades International (Berkeley, CA/Guatemala):  $1,000 in October 1996 for trainings to promote and build such concrete skills as conflict management, communication, negotiation, organizational planning, situational analysis, overcoming the effects of repression and fear, confronting racism and gender discrimination, and building trust. PBI has been active in Guatemala since 1983, adapting its trainings to the specific needs of the groups requesting them. http://www.peacebrigades.org/

Karuna Center/Milijuli Nepal (Leverett, MA/Nepal): $2,000 in July 1996 for a week-long training for 40 Nepali women in Pokara, Nepal in late October 1996. Many women walked several days through remote mountain regions to reach the nearest bus so they could get to the workshop. Nepal's literacy rate for women is abysmally low — NGO leaders estimate it to be 16% — so ways to achieve equal opportunity to education took up considerable time in the workshop. Each day more women engaged in the participatory process of the workshop by leading groups, reporting to the plenary and participating in role plays and demonstrations. "Their confidence grew as they gave voice to their experiences and saw their lives as dynamic and changeable rather than static and fixed," wrote workshop facilitator Paula Green. http://www.karunacenter.org/

MIRamiDa (Pakrac, Croatia): $2,000 in January 1996 for a week-long training of 12 local activists from nongovernmental organizations in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, exploring issues of nonviolence, civil society, work in conflict and post-conflict areas, and more. MIRamiDa grew out of the experience of hundreds of local and international volunteers who worked since July 1993 in the area of Pakrac, Croatia on pilot peace-building projects initiated by the United Nations Development Project (UNDP) and AntiWar Campaign Croatia. Pakrac was severely affected by fighting in 1991, and until May of 1995 was divided by a ceasefire line.

Organization for Peace and Disarmament in Southern Africa (Bulawayo, Zimbabwe): $2,500 in January 1996 for a Workshop on Mediation and Negotiation in Bulawayo in March 1996. OPEDISA was formed by a group of peace activists following five years of ethnic conflict in Zimbabwe, and five years after the country achieved political independence. OPEDISA has focused on conflicts in Angola and Mozambique and has organized workshops on conflict resolution with refugees from Mozambique living in refugee camps along the border with Zimbabwe, and with people working in relief agencies.

KURVE Wustrow (Wustrow, Germany):  $1,500 in January 1996 for the "International Training for Nonviolence in the Context of War or Armed Conflict," in April 1996 in Germany, attended by 20 people from 14 different countries, including Nigeria, Bangladesh, Ecuador, Serbia, Croatia, Ethiopia, India and Northern Ireland. The training addressed the themes of nonviolence, team work, conflict transformation, reconciliation, working with refugees, analysis and strategy development, and human rights.

1995 (1 grant: $3,000)

South-South Trainers Gathering Committee (Manila, Philippines): $3,000 in October 1995 for the second gathering of nonviolence trainers from nations of the southern hemisphere, held in Thailand in February 1996. Seven women and eight men attended from Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The objectives of the gathering were: to study the realities of nonviolence training in the context of global situations and events; to exchange experiences, approaches and techniques; to look into problems raised by nonviolence training and seek common solutions; and to look for ways to continue working together in mutual support and solidarity.

1994 (1 grant: $500)

Peaceworkers (San Francisco, CA): $500 in October 1994 for travel costs of two Peaceworkers members — one from Kenya and one from Ireland, both living in the US — to attend an intensive training for trainers at the Center for Nonviolent Communication in Switzerland. Peaceworkers was formed in 1987 to support the use of nonviolent conflict resolution in areas affected by armed conflict and, in particular, to encourage the United Nations to fully utilize nonviolent peacekeeping.